The characteristics of the composite materials

by:Kolysen     2020-07-02
Compared with traditional material, composite material has the following characteristics: 1. Can design. Composite material of physical and chemical, optical, thermal, mechanical and electrical, anticorrosive, antioxidant and so on, different properties can be made according to the different USES of materials. 2. The unity of material and structure. Component forming of traditional material is through the material to processing, reprocessed material will not occur in the process of composition and chemical changes, and composite components and materials are formed at the same time, generally no longer by & other; Composite materials & throughout; Processed into composite material components. Due to the characteristics of composite materials, the structure of good integrity, can greatly reduce the amount of components and connections, so as to shorten the processing cycle, reduce cost and improve the reliability of components. 3. Play the advantages of composite effect. Composite material is formed by material through the composite process of components, but it is not a simple mixture of several kinds of materials but on the basis of the raw materials to form a new performance. 4. The dependence of the material performance of composite technology. Composite structure in the process of forming a component material physical and chemical changes, process is very complex, the performance of the component hencoop technological process, technological parameters and technological process dependency is larger, at the same time in the molding process is difficult to accurately control the process parameters. The advantages of composite materials: 1. High strength, large modulus. Composite material & other; Light weight, high strength & throughout; Five times the modulus is four times that of steel, aluminum, titanium. 2. Good damping vibration reduction. Composite interface have greater ability to absorb vibration energy, vibration damping of the material is higher. 3. High safety. The breakage of the composite material not as abruptly as traditional materials, but after a series of damage, cracking, interface adhesion, fiber fracture process, such as to delay the sudden breakage, improves security. The classification of the composite material ( 1) According to the using performance is divided into: structural composite materials, functional composites. ( 2) According to the type of substrate material is divided into: resin matrix composites, metal matrix composites, inorganic non-metallic matrix composites. ( 3) According to the morphology of dispersed phase is divided into: continuous fiber reinforced composite materials, fabrics, woven reinforced composite materials, sheet material reinforced composites, short fiber or whisker reinforced composites, particle reinforced composites. ( 4) According to enhance fiber categories include: carbon fiber composite materials, glass fiber composite materials, organic fiber composites, ceramic fiber composite materials. Composite material performance of composite principle of composite material is replaced by two or more than the material composition of different chemical composition and performance, they also follow what kind of method for composite, how can make the overall performance is superior to the component of composite material, but keep the desired features, Such as high strength, high rigidity, light weight) Never expect, restrain the features, principle of composite is discussed this problem, the above and related problems were briefly introduced. ( 1) Matrix and reinforcing materials interaction matrix of composite material and reinforced material ask formed by the interaction through the interface and the properties of strength and, in general, the interface is not only the geometric boundary between two materials, so it is with a certain thickness of interface layer, a sharp change in this area, there are all kinds of complex physical, chemical and mechanical function. So in actual composite materials, the combination between matrix and reinforcing materials can be divided into the following several kinds. Mechanical combination. Between the matrix and reinforcing materials didn't happen chemical reaction, which is purely mechanical connection, this is combined by rough surface of the fiber and matrix and thus produce friction, only to walk in the direction of the fibers on load bearing. Wetting and spreading. Composite process of liquid plexus in reinforced material surface spreading, wetting body, then each other atoms or molecules diffusion, osmosis, and interface. Reaction. Between the matrix and reinforcing material produces chemical reaction, the interface shape hybrid combination. The combination of the combination way, is the most common way of combination. ( 2) Compatibility between the matrix and reinforcing materials compatibility refers to the composite materials in the process of the manufacture and use of components between the degree of coordinate and cooperate with each other. It is related to the components of material can effectively play a role, also relates to whether the composite material structure and performance of the overall long lasting stability. Physical compatibility: the physical compatibility requirements of composite material to withstand stress and environmental temperature change, the mechanical properties of phase composition of materials and other physical properties to coordinate and match each other. The important mechanical compatibility refers to the substrate should have enough toughness and strength, can put the internal load to transfer to the reinforced material is evenly, so never clearly never continuous phenomenon; Heat is another content of physical compatibility, compatibility requirements matrix composite and the reinforced material of thermal expansion coefficient and the coefficient of expansion of reasonable collocation, Sometimes also need to consider thermal conductivity) After, not subjected to high temperature or cycle when heated, composite external produces harmful additional stress and damage its mechanical performance. Chemical compatibility: chemical compatibility is quite complicated, it includes thermodynamic compatibility and chemical reaction ( The reaction between matrix and reinforcing materials), Compatibility. It is because the high performance of chemical stability of composite materials, makes the composite bags has been widely used in various industries, including food, daily necessities, cosmetics, industrial products, stationery, etc.
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